Table of contents:
- What is diabetes mellitus and how does it happen
- What are the causes of diabetes
- How not to get diabetes
2023 Author: Malcolm Clapton | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-22 06:26
If your parents have this disease, and you like sweets or are overweight, it's time to start prevention.
What is diabetes mellitus and how does it happen
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is a disease in which glucose does not enter cells. Its concentration in the blood increases, which leads to damage to blood vessels and nerve endings and the development of severe complications.
Depending on the mechanism of the formation of pathology, several types of diabetes mellitus are distinguished:
- Type I Type 1 diabetes, insulin deficient. In this condition, a person's pancreas produces little of the hormone insulin, which is necessary for transporting glucose into cells.
- Type II Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistant. In this case, the pancreas synthesizes enough insulin, but the cells have lost their sensitivity to it, so they cannot pass glucose into themselves.
- Gestational Gestational diabetes diabetes. It first appears during pregnancy and is characterized by decreased glucose tolerance. After childbirth, the condition returns to normal or becomes type II diabetes.
What are the causes of diabetes
One cause or a combination of several causes an illness. Scientists associate the appearance of pathology with the following factors.
If a parent has type I or type II diabetes, the risk of developing the disease in children increases. But the pathology itself is not inherited.
In one case, these are altered genes that regulate the sensitivity of tissues to glucose. If a person with such a heredity eats a lot of sweets, he is overweight, then the cells do not use all the sugar from the blood and type II diabetes will develop.
In another case, genetic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM) are inherited, due to which the cells of the pancreas reduce or completely stop the synthesis of insulin, therefore, over time, type I diabetes develops.
When overweight, a person develops type II diabetes mellitus. This is due to the structural features of adipose tissue, which consists of adipocyte cells. They synthesize Obesity as a key and modifiable cause of type II diabetes mellitus, interleukin-6, free fatty acids (FFA), leptin and other substances that affect tissue sensitivity to insulin. The most active is visceral fat, which is located in the waist area, since there are more capillaries and nerve endings than on the hips or other places.
In obese people, adipocytes release more fatty acids from diabetes mellitus (DM) than the body needs. Some of them penetrate the liver and prevent its cells from binding to insulin. Another part of FFA affects muscles, so glucose ceases to be absorbed by cells, and its concentration in the blood increases.
Diseases of the pancreas
Type I diabetes mellitus sometimes develops in diseases of the pancreas, when beta cells that synthesize insulin are damaged. This can occur with the following pathologies:
- pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis. New data on etiology and pathogenesis. Modern classification. Advances in diagnosis and treatment;
- cysts and pseudocysts;
- cancer Cancer of the pancreas.
Diabetes can be caused by a hereditary disease cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis, in which the work of all glands in the body, including the pancreas, is disrupted, so that pancreatitis develops.
Type I diabetes mellitus sometimes occurs with hereditary hemochromatosis Hereditary hemochromatosis. This is a disease in which the body's metabolism of iron is disrupted and it accumulates in excess in the pancreas and other organs.
Also, the mechanism of using glucose by cells can be affected by an operation to dissect the pancreas - pancreatotomy.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy
Even with the normal course of pregnancy, the sensitivity of tissues to insulin decreases Gestational diabetes mellitus by half, and the release of hormone after eating by the third trimester significantly increases. This process is necessary to compensate for the decrease in glucose delivery to cells. Therefore, most pregnant women do not show signs of diabetes.
But, according to various estimates, the pathophysiological aspects of the development of gestational diabetes mellitus, from 1 to 20% of pregnant women worldwide are susceptible to this disease, which is associated with a decrease in gestational diabetes mellitus of pancreatic cell function.
After childbirth, the body may recover or type II diabetes may develop, but why this happens is not known for sure.
Scientists have noticed Diabetes mellitus (DM) that type I diabetes is a consequence of infection with Coxsackie, rubella, Epstein-Barr viruses or retroviruses. They enter the cells of the pancreas and destroy them or affect the organ indirectly, stimulating the production of antibodies or activating certain groups of lymphocytes.
How not to get diabetes
Not all factors that cause diabetes are preventable. But everyone can influence some of them. To do this, you need Diabetes:
- eat less fatty and sugary foods;
- increase the proportion of vegetables, fruits and grains in the diet;
- do aerobic exercise three to four times a week;
- maintain a normal body mass index;
- do not abuse alcohol.
And in order to notice the first signs of impaired glucose tolerance in time, doctors recommend Diabetes to take a blood sugar test once a year.