2023 Author: Malcolm Clapton | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-22 06:26
Malaise, the body seems to turn inside out - such can be the consequences of a dubious pie at the station. Many have experienced food poisoning. But few people know how to deal with this disorder. We will tell you what food poisoning is and what to do in case of intoxication.
Food poisoning is an acute indigestion caused by the consumption of substandard or toxic foods and beverages.
- Foodborne toxicoinfections (PTI). They arise from the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. For example, stale food. Non-compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards can also provoke PTI.
- Toxic (non-infectious) poisoning. They occur when natural or chemical toxins enter the body with food. For example, the poison of inedible mushrooms and plants, as well as chemicals.
The last type of poisoning is the most dangerous. You shouldn't fight them on your own. If you suspect a non-infectious nature of poisoning, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Also, regardless of the type of poisoning, qualified medical care is needed for pregnant and lactating women, children and the elderly.
But usually people are faced with toxic infections that can be cured at home. Next, we will talk about what steps to take to cope with IPT on your own.
Symptoms and pathogenesis
The course of food poisoning depends on the age and general condition of the person, as well as the type of pathogenic bacteria. But the big picture is:
- obsessive nausea;
- repeated vomiting;
- weakness, malaise;
- changed complexion;
- increased body temperature.
PTI is characterized by a short incubation period. The first signs appear 2-6 hours after a meal and without treatment progress quickly.
Step 1. Flush the stomach
When the first symptoms appear, the remains of toxic food must be removed from the body. For this, the stomach is washed. the actions are the same as for first aid.
- Prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) or baking soda (for 1, 5-2 liters of water at room temperature, 1 tablespoon of baking soda).
- Drink some of the solution.
- Induce vomiting (press on the root of the tongue with two fingers).
- Repeat the procedure several times until the vomit is clear.
Step 2. Take sorbents
Sorbents are drugs that help remove toxins from the body. The most famous of these is activated carbon.
Dosage for poisoning: one tablet for every 10 kg of body weight.
In other words, if you weigh 70 kg, then you will need at least seven tablets. In severe cases, the dosage should be increased.
In case of poisoning, coal is best taken in the form of an aqueous suspension. To do this, crush the tablets and mix with 100 ml of boiled water at room temperature. This mixture tastes quite nasty, but it effectively fights poisoning.
You can also use white charcoal instead of the usual one. It is believed to be a selective, concentrated sorbent. It not only removes toxins, but also preserves nutrients. In this case, the dosage is halved: for an adult 2–4 tablets, depending on the degree of poisoning.
Instead of coal, you can use other sorbents (according to the instructions). For example, "Smektu", "Laktofiltrum", "Enterosgel" and others.
Step 3. Drink more
Vomiting and diarrhea severely dehydrate the body - you need to replenish fluid loss and maintain water balance.
Drink at least 2-3 liters of boiled water per day.
It is recommended to add some salt to the water: 1 teaspoon of table salt per liter of water. Saline solution can be alternated with sweet, weak tea.
You can also take special rehydration agents: "Regidron", "Oralit" and others. These are powders and solutions containing mineral salts and glucose and preventing dehydration.
As for taking other drugs for toxic infections, there are several general rules:
- When active vomiting stops, you can use drugs that restore the intestinal microflora ("Hilak Forte", "Linex", "Mezim" and others).
- If the temperature rises above 37.5 degrees, it must be brought down with antipyretics (paracetamol, ibuprofen and others).
- Taking painkillers is not recommended: they can complicate the diagnosis in case of complications.
- Antimicrobial drugs (mainly antibiotics) are used in severe cases of toxicoinfection and are prescribed exclusively by a doctor.
Step 4. Follow the regimen and diet
With a foodborne infection, the patient feels severe weakness. You should adhere to bed rest and refuse food for the first day (if appetite is disturbed and the body rejects food).
On the second or third day, you can afford jelly, crackers (without poppy seeds, raisins, vanilla and any other additives), as well as liquid mashed potatoes or oatmeal porridge cooked in water.
With active treatment, the symptoms recede - improvement should come within a few hours. Finally, the body returns to normal, as a rule, within three days. But for several more days, abdominal pain, weakness, flatulence may persist.
Step 5. Don't forget about prevention
No one is immune from foodborne infections. But everyone has the power to minimize their risk.
- Wash your hands before eating.
- Keep the kitchen clean, follow the cooking technology.
- Be demanding on the quality of your products when purchasing. For example, do not buy fish with an ammonia smell and a "rusty" coating. (All recommendations for choosing fish.)
- Do not eat in questionable gastronomic establishments, do not drink tap water.
Observe these and other precautions and stay healthy!