Table of contents:
- What is tetanus
- How do you get tetanus?
- Why tetanus is dangerous
- What are the symptoms of tetanus
- How is tetanus treated?
- How not to get tetanus
2023 Author: Malcolm Clapton | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-07-28 10:38
Lifefucker figured out why even a small wound can be fatal.
What is tetanus
Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. Microbes live in Tetanus in soil, dust, animal feces in the form of spores, that is, in a dormant state. When spores enter a person, bacteria enter the active phase, multiply and secrete a toxin - tetanospasmin. It damages nerve cells that regulate muscle contraction.
This substance is the most powerful toxin in Tetanus: only 2.5 nanograms per kilogram of body weight is enough for death to occur.
How do you get tetanus?
It is impossible to catch tetanus from an infected person. Tetanus disease usually develops due to:
- stab wounds, cut wounds;
- complex bone fractures;
- burns and frostbite;
- gunshot wound;
- surgical operation;
- animal bite;
- chronic leg ulcers;
- injecting drug use;
- dental infection;
- childbirth of Tetanus or abortion under non-sterile conditions;
- middle ear infections;
- abrasions of the cornea of the eye.
Even newborns can contract tetanus if the umbilical cord is cut with a non-sterile instrument or dirt gets on the navel. The risk is especially high if the mother does not have a tetanus shot.
Why tetanus is dangerous
You can die from him. The risk depends on which form of Tetanus the disease is in. With a light one, about 10% of people die, with a moderate one - 10–20%, and with a severe one - up to 50% of patients. Moreover, death can occur for various reasons. These are Symptoms and Complications:
- Pulmonary embolism. This is the name of the blockage by a thrombus of the main vessel that feeds the lungs.
- Aspiration pneumonia. This is an inflammation of the lungs due to the ingress of foreign substances into them.
- Respiratory Tetanus Failure. Severe breathing disorder due to spasm of the diaphragm and other muscles of the chest.
Sometimes the muscles are still so strongly contracted that a person's bones, including the spine, break.
What are the symptoms of tetanus
The first signs of the disease are visible in Tetanus Clinical Presentation 7-14 days after infection. And the sooner the symptoms appear, the more severe the course of tetanus.
First, the person notices Tetanus Clinical Presentation that they have a sore throat, have a hard time or cannot swallow. Then trismus appears - an involuntary spasm of the jaws. It is so strong that you cannot open your mouth. For some, because of this, the face acquires a specific grin. Later, the muscles in the neck also become tense (doctors call this stiffness). Within 24–48 hours, the spasm spreads to the muscles of the limbs and back.
In many people, muscles contract reflexively, as in cramps, if someone touches the body or there is noisy around. These spasms last from a few seconds to minutes, but gradually get worse.
Sometimes other symptoms of Tetanus can occur with tetanus:
- high blood pressure;
- high body temperature.
When the first signs appear, you need to contact a therapist or call an ambulance.
How is tetanus treated?
According to the law, Decree of October 22, 2013 No. 59 On the approval of the sanitary and epidemiological rules of the joint venture 18.104.22.16813-13 "Prevention of tetanus", doctors immediately send the patient to the intensive care unit.
There is no cure for tetanus. Therefore, resuscitators prescribe therapy to reduce the manifestations of the disease and maintain a person's life. For this, different Tetanus preparations are used:
- Antitoxin. This is a remedy that helps to neutralize tetanospasmin, which has not yet managed to penetrate the nerve cells.
- Antibiotics Needed to stop the multiplication of bacteria. Penicillins and tetracyclines are commonly used, but many doctors question Tetanus Medication for their effectiveness.
- Sedatives and anticonvulsants. Relieve muscle spasm.
- Beta blockers. These medicines are needed to keep the heart working.
If a person is in serious condition and cannot breathe on his own, he will be connected to a ventilator.
How not to get tetanus
To prevent the development of this disease, a vaccine is used. It is administered according to the schedule approved by the National Calendar of Preventive Vaccinations in the National Calendar of Preventive Vaccinations. Children are given the first injection at 3 months, and then revaccinated at 4, 5, 6 and 18 months. The procedure is repeated at 6-7, 14 and 18 years old. As immunity to tetanus gradually diminishes, adults need a vaccine every 10 years.
If a person had an injury with skin damage, burns or frostbite, within 20 days there is a Decree of October 22, 2013 No. 59 On the approval of sanitary and epidemiological rules SP 22.214.171.12413-13 "Prevention of tetanus" to conduct emergency tetanus prophylaxis and administer a vaccine. It is also necessary for women who gave birth at home. To do this, you can go to any hospital or clinic.
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