Table of contents:

How to prepare for pregnancy
How to prepare for pregnancy

Detailed action plan for future parents.

How to prepare for pregnancy
How to prepare for pregnancy

Here's an eight-point plan to help reduce the risk of fetal abnormalities and keep the mother healthy during pregnancy.

1. Go in for sports

Go in for sports
Go in for sports

If you are a sedentary lifestyle, it is worth adding physical activity. Exercise at high to moderate intensity increases fertility, especially in overweight women.

By accustoming yourself to physical activity before pregnancy, you are more likely to continue exercising after pregnancy, and this has a proven positive effect.

Physical activity before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, shortens labor and reduces the risk of complications.

While you are not yet pregnant, choose any sport of your choice, and starting from the first trimester, switch to softer and safer activities. The most suitable activities for pregnant women are:

  • aerobic training with medium intensity;
  • exercises to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor;
  • walking;
  • swimming;
  • stretching;
  • strengthening exercises.

Pregnant women are advised not to engage in cycling and horse riding, gymnastics and hockey, as well as all sports where you can fall, get injured or overload the joints.

2. Eat right

Eat right
Eat right

Even before pregnancy, it is worth taking care of your weight.


Anna Kannabikh gynecologist of the mobile clinic DOC +

Overweight and obesity in pregnancy are risk factors for many adverse outcomes (spontaneous abortion, congenital fetal abnormalities, stillbirth), as well as pregnancy complications (diabetes during pregnancy, preeclampsia, thromboembolism).

To lose weight, eat a healthy diet. For a complete diet, add the following food categories:

  • Cereals. Wheat, oats, buckwheat, rice, corn and legumes. Try to choose whole grains or low-processed foods.
  • Vegetables. Alternate between dark greens, reds and oranges. Choose fresh or frozen seasonal foods.
  • Fruits. Eat fresh, canned in your own juice or water, frozen or dried seasonal fruits.
  • Milk products. Choose foods that are low in fat and rich in calcium.
  • Meat and fish. Protein is essential for the normal development of the fetus and the health of the placenta during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, getting enough protein will help prolong satiety and reduce weight.
  • The right fats. Try to limit the amount of harmful trans fats. Get the saturated and unsaturated fat you need from lard, dairy products, fish, vegetable oils, and nuts.

Do not get carried away with strict diets. A recent study found that low-carb diets before and during pregnancy can cause a neural tube defect. Without sufficient carbohydrates in the mother's diet, the risk of fetal spinal cord and brain defects is increased by 30%.

At the same time, the head of the study, Dr. Tania Desrosiers, noted that folate (which includes folic acid) helps prevent neural tube defects. However, this vitamin is not the only vitamin needed for pregnant women. At the planning stage and during pregnancy, it is worth taking care of other nutrients.

3. Take micronutrient supplements

Take micronutrient supplements
Take micronutrient supplements

Malnutrition by mothers increases the risk of low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg) babies, premature birth, fetal growth retardation, perinatal diseases and mortality, and deficiencies in certain nutrients increase the risk of congenital anomalies and fetal malformations.

Anna Kannabikh gynecologist of the mobile clinic DOC +

Adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy pregnancy, but some vitamins are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities from food alone. Lack of vitamins and other elements can be replenished with the help of special supplements.

You can buy supplements with vitamins and elements separately or choose a suitable complex. For example, the "" complex was created just for those who are just thinking about a baby, but it is also suitable for all trimesters of pregnancy and lactation.

Below we will look at several vitamins and minerals that are necessary for a woman and an unborn child during the planning stage, during pregnancy and during breastfeeding.

Folic acid

A lack of folate, including folic acid, increases the risk of developing birth defects of the cardiovascular system and the neural tube of the fetus.

Studies have shown that 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is the best substitute for synthetic folic acid to replenish folate deficiencies. It is the natural form of vitamin B9 (folic acid) and is much better absorbed. A scientific review from scientists at the University of Saarland in Germany states that the natural folate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is fully absorbed by the body, has no upper absorption rate, and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

Therefore, when choosing a vitamin complex or folate supplement, pay attention to its form. The complex "Pregnoton Mama" contains 200 mcg of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (extrafolate) and 200 mcg of folic acid, which significantly increases absorption compared to taking only folic acid or foods rich in this vitamin.


Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, which is dangerous for both the mother and the baby. It can cause premature birth, restrict fetal growth and cause a low birth weight.

The vitamin complex "" contains liposomal iron. When choosing supplements, be sure to pay attention to the shape of the iron. The fact is that supplements with sulfate, fumarate and iron pyrophosphate can cause damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, discomfort, nausea and constipation.

Liposomal iron helps to avoid these effects. Liposome is a nano-sized, non-toxic vesicle-vesicle. Iron protected by such a bubble is not released in the gastrointestinal tract and does not cause nausea or other side effects. In this case, the bioavailability of liposomal iron is 3.5 times higher than the bioavailability of iron pyrophosphate, 2.7 times that of ferrous sulfate and 4.7 times that of ferrous fumarate.


Iodine deficiency can cause abortion, birth defects and neurological problems. After the 12th week of pregnancy, iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the fetus, therefore, after this period, its amount must be increased to 150–250 mcg per day.

The vitamin complex "Pregnoton Mama" contains 150 mcg of iodine - this is quite enough for the planning period, pregnancy itself and breastfeeding.

Vitamin D

A sufficient amount of this vitamin affects the formation of the musculoskeletal system and the overall health of the fetus. In addition, vitamin D reduces the risk of premature birth and low birth weight.

The recommended norm for women is 600 IU, however, such an amount of a substance cannot be found in vitamin complexes. The fact is that manufacturers take into account the consumption of each vitamin and mineral with food and reduce its amount in the complex in order to avoid possible overdose.

For example, the complex "Pregnoton Mama" contains 5 μg (200 IU) of vitamin D. The remaining amount of vitamin D can be obtained from herring, salmon, mackerel, egg yolks, sour cream, butter, poultry and cattle liver. Include these foods in your diet along with vitamins.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce the risk of premature birth, fetal death, and postpartum maternal depression. In addition, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a type of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has a major impact on fetal brain and retinal development.

Since omega-3 fatty acids are essential and cannot be produced in the body, they must be obtained from the diet. The best sources of omega-3s are fish and seafood, but since many pregnant women are afraid to consume sea fish due to the potential for mercury, which can be harmful to the fetus, it is possible to get omega-3s from supplements.

The complex "Pregnoton Mama" contains 200 mg of DHA - that is how much is necessary for the normal development of the fetus.

Start taking vitamin and mineral complexes three months before the expected pregnancy. This will create a supply of all the necessary micronutrients in the body.

4. See the dentist

See the dentist
See the dentist

Pregnant women are more prone to caries due to increased acidity in the oral cavity, 30% more susceptible to periodontal disease and gingivitis (bleeding gums).

Since the risk of oral diseases increases during pregnancy, it is worthwhile to go to the dentist in advance, check the condition of the teeth, eliminate all defects and consult about further measures.

Also, follow a few rules:

  • reduce the amount of sugar and sugary drinks;
  • brush your teeth twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste;
  • use dental floss every day;
  • Chew sugar-free gum to normalize the pH in your mouth.

5. Find out everything about your state of health

Find out all about your health
Find out all about your health

Three months before conception, it is recommended to undergo pre-conception preparation: to pass tests, identify risks and, if possible, eliminate them.


Irina Lukoshkina Director of the Embryo Reproduction Clinic, Candidate of Medical Sciences, reproductologist, obstetrician-gynecologist

As part of pregravid training, spouses are screened for all types of sexually transmitted infections, blood tests for hepatitis, treponema viruses, HIV, measles, rubella, chickenpox, toxoplasma and others. If necessary, spouses can be vaccinated against rubella, measles, chickenpox.

Also at the planning stage of pregnancy, it is advisable to check the thyroid gland.

“Checking and monitoring the function of the thyroid gland usually includes taking tests for hormones and ultrasound. The identified violations can lead to anovulation, infertility, spontaneous miscarriages, premature birth, fetal growth retardation and perinatal complications,”notes Anna Kannabikh, gynecologist at the mobile clinic DOC +.

6. Take a genetic test

Take a genetic test
Take a genetic test

Genetic research is simply necessary if you or your relatives have had hereditary diseases, but to eliminate the risks, they can also be carried out in healthy people.


Natalya Beglyarova Leading Expert of the Center for Molecular Diagnostics (CMD), Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Rospotrebnadzor

Sometimes healthy people do not even suspect that they are carriers of the so-called balanced chromosomal rearrangements (aberrations), which do not manifest themselves externally, but can be responsible for infertility or miscarriage.

Natalya Beglyarova says that the most important part of genetic diagnostics in preparation for pregnancy is the determination of the karyotype, or karyotyping.

This diagnosis allows you to identify the duplication or absence of any chromosome, movement or rotation of a section within a chromosome - gross violations in the structure and number of chromosomes that can cause spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, as well as more than 700 diseases, including Down syndrome, dementia, physical defects fetus.

The human karyotype is unchanged throughout life, so the study can be done once in a lifetime at any age. In some countries, for example in the UAE, karyotyping is included in the set of mandatory tests before marriage.

Natalya Beglyarova Leading Expert of the Center for Molecular Diagnostics (CMD), Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Rospotrebnadzor

For this test, blood is donated from a vein in the laboratory. A month before the study, you need to give up antibiotics, three days - from alcohol. Blood is donated in a state of satiety, not on an empty stomach.

7. Monitor your emotional state

Monitor your emotional state
Monitor your emotional state

Stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy negatively affect the development of the fetal nervous system, as well as the development of the baby after birth. Therefore, it is important to improve the emotional state of the mother even before the onset of pregnancy.

Follow a daily routine, normalize sleep and nutrition, add physical activity, try auto-training and meditation methods. After the onset of pregnancy, the emotional state of a woman can be unstable: due to hormonal changes, tearfulness, resentment, and anxiety increase.

In order not to increase stress, during pregnancy you should be in a comfortable environment, with loving and understanding people. You can discuss this with your family in advance, solve problems with work, if stressful situations often arise there, visit a perinatal psychologist.

8. Give up bad habits

Give up bad habits
Give up bad habits

Quitting smoking and alcohol is essential for carrying a healthy baby. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy have lower intellectual capacity, hyperactivity problems, and antisocial behavior.

Smoking should be eliminated during the preparation phase in five cycles. When smoking, carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream, which leads to circulatory hypoxia, can disrupt the formation of the placental bed, cause premature aging of the placenta and delayed fetal development. Also, during intrauterine development, the fetus in the period from the second to the ninth week is very sensitive to alcohol, consumption can lead to malformations and deformities.

Anna Kannabikh gynecologist of the mobile clinic DOC +

Give up bad habits even at the planning stage, and you will not have to suffer from feelings of guilt and risk the health of your baby during pregnancy.


According to statistics, in Russia no more than 4% of couples purposefully prepare for the birth of a baby. This indicator is the result of a lack of awareness of future parents about the importance and benefits of preparing for parenting.

Irina Lukoshkina Director of the Embryo Reproduction Clinic, Candidate of Medical Sciences, reproductologist, obstetrician-gynecologist

Proper planning significantly increases the chances of a healthy pregnancy and correct fetal development.

Be active, eat right and accept, watch your physical health and emotional state, and you can avoid many problems, protect yourself and your child.

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